By Bacon M., Simm R., Redshaw T.
This ebook introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of analyzing three-D seismic facts. the themes it covers comprise uncomplicated structural interpretation and map-making; using 3-D visualization equipment; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the iteration and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written via expert geophysicists with a long time of operating adventure within the oil undefined, the publication might be imperative for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum
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Extra resources for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
Some of the other processes are applied in a 2-D sense, along lines rather than across the 3-D data volume. There are three main processes that are different for 3-D data: binning, spatial filtering, and any process that repositions data such as migration and dip moveout. In addition several other applications, although generally run on selected lines from the 3-D volume, may benefit from the prior application of one of the above. An example of such a process is velocity analysis, which is normally run on a regular grid of 2-D lines but will improve in quality after 3-D migration.
To keep control, the boat needs to be continuously moving through the water at a speed of at least 3 knots, and normal operations are carried out at a speed of around 4 knots. It also 24 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing means that the seismic vessel requires a large turning area and needs to remain clear of other shipping in the area. Often, smaller boats known as picket vessels are used during the seismic survey to warn other boats to keep their distance while operations are underway.
Both acquisition costs and processing time are greater for converted wave data, so it is seldom used in areas with a good P-wave image. Indeed, the amplitude versus offset information in conventional P-wave data contains information on the shear wave contrasts (see chapter 5). However, the technique has proved useful in areas where the P-wave image is obscured by gas clouds. 0 km Fig. 15 Typical marine four-component geometries (not to scale). 0 km 30 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing Fig.