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By Amrit Rai

This linguistic examine investigates the beginning of the language Hindi/Hindavi and the complicated reasons which resulted in its department into separate tongues - sleek Hindi and sleek Urdu.

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Extra resources for A house divided : the origin and development of Hindi/Hindavi

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Nevertheless, in common with Hamrin, Dittmer and Solinger, Bachman utilizes a tripartite division of the Chinese leadership in an attempt to identify competing policy packages in the 1980s. 1 shows, despite a common framework of analysis, there is disagreement on where the divisions lie. 1 Competing ideas and policies in post-Mao China Groupings Author Hamrin Chen Yun Peng Zhen Hu Yaobang Zhao Ziyang Deng Xiaoping Bachman Chen Yun Zhao Ziyang Deng Xiaoping Solinger Adjusters Reformers Conservers Chen Yun Zhao Ziyang Yu Qiuli Moderates Radical reformers Palaeo- Maoist conservatives Chen Yun Li Peng Yao Yilin Jiang Zemin » Deng Xiaoping* Zhao Ziyang* Hu Yaobang Hu Qili Tian Jiyun Wan Li Li Ruihuan Zhao Ziyang* Peng Zhen Wang Zhen Li Xiannian Bo Yibo Dittmer * indicates part-time membership.

A shared ideological commitment with a central leader can motivate a provincial leader to ally himself with the centre. Again, we must bear in mind the question of loyalty to whom at the centre. During periods of political conflict at the centre, provincial leaders may take up the policy of one group and champion it fervently in their province. For example, Guizhou supported Chen Yun's strategies during 1956 while Henan championed the competing Maoist policy during 1957. In such cases, these leaders put their careers on the line.

Central leaders often choose testing grounds for controversial policies to prove their wisdom to sceptical colleagues. So the important factor here is the relationship between a provincial client and his central patron, rather than the relationship between centre and province per se. Donnithorne (1976) claims that another related source of provincial power is control of information to the centre. Central planners rely on statistics collected at the provincial level when they formulate their strategies.

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