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By Weigent D.A., Blalock J.E.

The prohormone pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is cleaved posttranslationally into the biologically energetic peptides ACTH, ♀-endorphin, and ♂-melano-cyte-stimulating hormone (♂-MSH). even if thesepeptides have been first considered solely of pituitary starting place, there are actually many stories displaying that POMC peptides is additionally produced through cells of the immune process, together with T cells, B cells, and monocytes. The id among pituitary and leukocyte POMC peptides has been demonstrated. The synthesis of POMC peptides within the immune process canbe modulated via immunostimulants, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), IL-1, and glucocorticoids.The facts recommend that the kind of POMC stimulus may possibly ensure the telephone style concerned, processing pathway, and eventually the categorical peptide produced that could effect immune functionality. POMC peptides have either stimulatory and inhibitory activities in vitro which could impression all of the significant immune mobilephone varieties, fairly T cells. In vivo, POMC peptides produced through cells of the immune process may well act in an endocrine type on the adrenal gland and within the neuroendocrine process. they could additionally play a necessary function in ache regulate. hence, POMC peptides produced by means of cells of the immune method may perhaps functionality as endogenous regulators in the immune method in addition to conveyors of indications from the immune procedure to different goal tissues together with the neuroendocrine procedure.

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Y se utilizan textos descontextualizados y menos frecuentes como la redacción o el ensayo. Los estudiantes tienen modelos literarios clásicos y hacen ejercicios de traducción y transformación de textos. Vigner dice que esta concepción se corresponde con la utopía de la existencia de un lenguaje universal (el esperanto, el latín o el escrito académico) y, también, con aquella época en la que escribir era sólo patrimonio de una minoría. El escrito, en calidad de código segundo, se fundamenta en los planteamientos de la lingüística moderna, según los cuales lo oral es primordial y lo escrito se le subordina: «Lengua y escritura son dos sistemas de signos distintos: la única razón de la existencia del segundo es la de representar al primero» (Saussure, 1915, citado por Vigner).

Conclusiones Podemos concluir los siguientes puntos: • La comprensión lectora, la lectura por placer, es con creces la actividad más eficiente para adquirir el código. ¿cómo se adquiere el código escrito? • • • • 67 Además parece ser imprescindible: todos los buenos escritores son o han sido durante un largo período de su vida, buenos lectores. Los experimentos no aportan datos claros sobre el valor de las prácticas de escritura, pero sí que demuestran que son bastante menos efectivas que la lectura.

Para los medievales el texto escrito (latín) era mucho más importante que el oral (lenguas románicas), era el modelo normativo que se debía seguir para aprender gramática y retórica. En cambio, el único objeto de los estudios de la lingüística estructuralista y generativa del siglo xx es el código oral, mientras que el escrito es un simple medio de transcripción del habla. Para entender el papel real que desempeña lo oral en la producción y comprensión del escrito, hay que aclarar cuál es la relación que se establece entre ambos códigos.

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