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By Helga Stan-Lotter (auth.), Prof. Dr. Helga Stan-Lotter, Dr. Sergiu Fendrihan (eds.)

Once thought of unprecedented rarities, extremophiles became appealing gadgets for uncomplicated and utilized study starting from nanotechnology to biodiversity to the origins of existence or even to the quest for extraterrestrial existence. numerous novel elements of extremophiles are lined during this ebook; the focal point is first of all on strange and not more explored ecosystems similar to marine hypersaline deeps, severe chilly, barren region sands, and man-made fresh rooms for spacecraft meeting. Secondly, the more and more advanced box of functions from extremophile learn is taken care of and examples similar to novel psychrophilic enzymes, compounds from halophiles, and detection ideas for power extraterrestrial existence types are presented.

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Extra info for Adaption of Microbial Life to Environmental Extremes: Novel Research Results and Application

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The best known and biologically most studied 40 Gudmundur Oli Hreggvidsson et al. geothermal areas are in North America (Yellowstone National Park), New Zealand, Japan, Italy, the Kamchatka Peninsula, and Iceland. Geothermal areas in different parts of the world vary greatly in geology and chemistry, but belong mainly to two categories: Firstly, the solfataric type characterized by acidic soils, sulfur, mud pots, and fumaroles, and secondly the neutral–alkaline type, characterized by freshwater hot springs and geysers, which are neutral to alkaline in pH (Kristjansson and Hreggvidsson 1995).

5 m deep. 3 mM and the ammonium concentration increases from 5 to 3450 mM (De Lange et al. 1990), a concentration that is 1–5 order of magnitudes greater than those observed in the open ocean and coastal waters (K€onneke et al. 2005). The concentration of sulphate, the most abundant electron acceptor along the Bannock chemocline, increases from 31 to 84 mM. 3 mM and redox potential drops from 210 mV to very negative values, as a result of total oxygen depletion in the lower part of the halocline.

Iron- and manganese-reducing bacteria were isolated on selective media and the plate counts indicated that the cell number of these two functional groups decreases along seawater up to a depth of 2170 m, whereas they significantly increase between 2170 and 2225 m (van Cappellen et al. 1998). Despite the detection of high numbers of iron- and manganese-reducing bacteria at the intermediate salinity region of the interface, only manganese oxide resulted to be depleted at these depths, whereas the iron oxides showed a conservative profile.

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