By Madeleine Leininger, Abram Omeri
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Additional resources for Advances in Contemporary Transcultural Nursing
The Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES) was developed by Bernal and Froman to address a nurse’s knowledge about ‘cultural concepts, cultural patterns and skills in performing transcultural nursing functions’ (Coffman et al 2004: 181). Early studies using the CSES were conducted to measure the cultural competence of senior nursing students. Alpers and Zoucha (1996) found that introducing cultural concepts and care of diverse people into a course was insufficient in raising students’ perception of cultural competence; and Kulwicki and Boloink (1996) found that students had little or no confidence in caring for people representing African Americans, Latino-Hispanics, Middle Easterners/Arabics, Asian/Pacific Islanders and Native American minority groups.
Few participants had received any formal transcultural nursing education from their professional preparation, continuing education, or reading; and thus, did not describe care actions and decisions based on a conceptual framework. Researchers assessed that these participants were at the first stage of transcultural nursing knowledge as described by Leininger – cultural awareness. Themes identified in the research reflected that nurses and students overwhelmingly perceived a need for transcultural nursing and they modified care to meet their client’s culture care needs.
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