Download Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 8 by H.E. Landsberg (ed.), J. Van Mieghem (ed.) PDF

By H.E. Landsberg (ed.), J. Van Mieghem (ed.)

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We have already mentioned the noise storm. The bursts that occur during this event are called type I or storm burst,s. They appear most frequently a t wavelengths longer than 1meter. 3 sec up to nearly a minute [41, 421. During the lifetime of a single burst, the frequency of emission may drift with time either to higher or to lower frequencies, the direction of drift depending on the position of the source WI. A schematic representation of other types of solar burst is shown in Fig. 16, in the sequence that tends to follow certain large solar flares.

H this mechanism, too, the problem lies in the high electron velocities required, though also problems in propagation arise because of the high refractive index required for emission. It is quite possible that each of these four mechanisms is operative in one or another type of radio emission. 1. Solar Radio Bursts. Several schemes of classification have been developed for bursts a t fixed frequencies. These are generally described in the data sources, and we will review here only the types recognized on radio spectrum records, where the time variation of intensity of radio emission is displayed over a broad range of frequencies.

They consist, of fluted “penumbral” areas of intermediate darkness, and darker “umhral” areas that also reveal brightness fluctuations when studied under ideal conditions. Figure 11 shows a typical large sunspot, with umbra1 and penumbral arras labeled. Historical records of positions, areas, or numbers of sunspots reach back to 1611 and are relatively reliable from about 1750. These are generally results derived from hand drawings of the disc of the sun, carefully made for this purpose. Sunspots tend to group together into compact associations numbering from a single or, more frequentJy, a few disconnected spots to dozens of individual spots.

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