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By Frederick C. Beiser

Histories of German philosophy within the 19th century quite often specialise in its first half--when Hegel, idealism, and Romanticism ruled. in contrast, the rest of the century, after Hegel's loss of life, has been fairly ignored since it has been noticeable as a interval of stagnation and decline. yet Frederick Beiser argues that the second one 1/2 the century was once actually essentially the most innovative sessions in smooth philosophy as the nature of philosophy itself used to be up for grabs and the very absence of walk in the park ended in creativity and the beginning of a brand new period.

In this leading edge concise background of German philosophy from 1840 to 1900, Beiser focuses now not on subject matters or person thinkers yet really at the period's 5 nice debates: the identification problem of philosophy, the materialism controversy, the tools and bounds of historical past, the pessimism controversy, and the "Ignorabimusstreit." Schopenhauer and Wilhelm Dilthey play vital roles in those controversies yet so do many missed figures, together with Ludwig Buchner, Eugen Duhring, Eduard von Hartmann, Julius Fraunstaedt, Hermann Lotze, Adolf Trendelenburg, and ladies, Agnes Taubert and Olga Pluemacher, who've been thoroughly forgotten in histories of philosophy.

The result's a wide-ranging, unique, and amazing new account of German philosophy within the severe interval among Hegel and the 20th century."

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M. (1924) Stoicism and Its Influence, London: Harrap. Weygoldt, G. P. (1883) Die Philosophie der Stoa nach ihrem Wesen und ihren Schicksalen, Leipzig: Schulze. Wickham Legg, J. (1910) “A Bibliography of the Thoughts of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus,” Transactions of the Bibliographical Society 10: 15–81. Wilson, N. G. (1996) Scholars of Byzantium, rev. edn, London: Duckworth. Zanta, L. (1914) La Renaissance du stoïcisme au XVIe siècle, Paris: Champion. 13 This page intentionally left blank PART I Antiquity and the Middle Ages This page intentionally left blank 1 STOICISM IN ROME Gretchen Reydams-Schils The extent to which one should treat Stoicism in Rome as the first wave of its reception history depends largely on how one sees the relation between the two main phases in the history of the school, that is, between the founding generations and the Roman tradition.

4 and Appian, Mith. 30–45). 13 Cicero refers to Posidonius throughout his works as his teacher and friend: Fat. 5–7; Nat. D. 88; Fin. 6; Tusc. 5 (Edelstein and Kidd 1972: T29). 14 On Seneca’s philosophical contemporaries see Sellars 2014. Another Stoic of this period worth noting is Chaeremon who, like Seneca, is said to have been one of Nero’s tutors (although Seneca does not mention him). See further Horst 1984. 15 The ancient biography of Persius (attributed to Suetonius but now credited to Valerius Probus) reports that in his will Persius left around 700 volumes of Chrysippus to Cornutus.

Second (fr. 4 Hense), Musonius does not insist on an absolute division of labor between men and women. Although he notes that certain tasks appear to be more suited to men than to women because of differences in physical strength, Musonius is also willing to entertain the possibility that all human tasks constitute a common obligation and that sometimes roles can be switched. The cluster of texts about marriage (fr. 13a–b, and 14) shows that Musonius posited an ideal marriage as a reciprocal relation between equals, based on virtue and genuine mutual affection.

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