By Safa Kasap, Harry Ruda, Yann Boucher
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Extra resources for An illustrated dictionary of optoelectronics and photonics: Important terms and effects
Electronegativity is a relative measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons to form an anion. Fluorine is the most highly electronegative atom as it most easily accepts an electron to become an anion (F-). Typically halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) are electronegative elements. In HCl, for example, the Cl atom is more electronegative than the H atom and therefore attracts the electrons more than the H proton. Cl therefore acquires a net negative charge and the hydrogen proton becomes exposed.
O. Kasap) 37 motion of the electron. In vacuum where there are no internal fields, me* is obviously the mass in vacuum, me. Effective mass of an electron is a quantum mechanical quantity that behaves like the inertial mass in classical mechanics, F = ma in that it measures the objects resistance to acceleration. It relates the acceleration a of an electron in the conduction band to the applied external force Fext by Fext = me*a. The external force is most commonly the force of an applied electric field, eEx, and excludes all internal forces within the crystal .
In all cases, np = ni2. Note that donor and acceptor energy levels are not shown. CB = conduction band, VB = valence band, Ec = CB edge, Ev = VB edge, EF = Fermi level in intrinsic semiconductor, EFn = Fermi level in n-type semiconductor, EFp = Fermi level in p-type semiconductor, Fabry-Perot laser amplifier, see optical semiconductor amplifier. Fabry-Perot resonator or etalon, see optical resonator. g. an optical pulse) to fall from its 90% peak value to its 10% peak value. O. Kasap) 44 distribution).