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By Nicola Di Cosmo

This complete heritage of the northern frontier of China in the course of the first millennium B.C. info the formation of 2 more and more specified cultural parts: the sedentary chinese language and the northern nomads. Nicola Di Cosmo explores the tensions current among those worlds as they turned more and more polarized, with the eventual production of the nomadic Hsiung-nu empire within the north, and of the chinese language empire within the south. Di Cosmo investigates the origins of the antagonism among early China and its "barbarian" pals.

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The northern regions of Central Eurasia, east of the Urals, were transformed by the shift from an economy of predation to an economy of production. The steppe regions became populated with diversified communities of Neolithic hunters and fishermen as well as Bronze Age pastoralists and agriculturalists. 19 These environments created conditions favorable to the breeding of animals, and agriculture could also be practiced. Pastoralists occupied the higher alpine pastures, such as those in the T’ien-shan and the Altai regions, whereas along the lower course of the Amu Darya, in Central Asia, animal breeding co-existed with irrigated agriculture modeled after the system of irrigation of the Khorezmian civilization, at the northeastern end of the Mesopotamian world.

97–117. Kiselev, Drevniaia istoriia Iuzhnoi Sibiri, pp. 302–303. Gryaznov, The Ancient Civilization of Ancient Siberia, p. 217. c. ). From the eighth–seventh century onward two different groups in the Altai can be identified by their respective burials: the kurgan and the stone box. c. 70 The chronological upper limit of the early nomads has found confirmation in the work carried out by Gryaznov and Grach at Arzhan, in Tuva. c. At the end of its late stage of early nomadic (“Scythian-type”) evolution, Tuva entered the “HunnoSarmatian” period common to vast parts of Central Eurasia and generally identified with the arrival of new pastoral nomadic cultures from the east in concomitance with the expansion of the Hsiung-nu empire.

Owing to the aridity of the climate, there is no cultivation on the Tarim’s banks. Eventually, the Tarim flows into the Lop Nor lake, located in the eastern part of the region. Directly to the north of Lop Nor, close to the southern slope of the Bogdo Mountain in the eastern Altai, is the Turfan depression, 266 meters below sea level. North of the Tarim Basin, the T’ien-shan extends east into China for 1,600 kilometers. Elevations reach 6,686 meters in the west and 5,089 meters in Bogda Ula, north of Turfan, in the east.

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