By D C Ferree, I Warrington
This ebook offers a entire reference paintings, summarizing our wisdom of apples and their construction all over the world. It comprises 24 chapters written via overseas professionals from the united states, Canada, Europe and New Zealand. the most matters addressed contain taxonomy and creation records, plant fabrics, apple body structure, orchard and tree administration, crop safety (including natural production), harvesting and dealing with and usage. The ebook might be of vital curiosity to these operating in horticulture and botany.
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Additional resources for Apples : botany, production, and uses
1 Introduction Apples grow readily throughout temperate climatic zones. However, commercial apple production is increasingly concentrated in countries and in growing districts that have a strong comparative advantage in apple production and marketing. Falling trade barriers have meant that it has become increasingly difficult for less efficient producers to find shelter from more efficient external competitors. The development of more heat-tolerant cultivars, the increasing popularity of varieties that require a long growing season (such as ‘Granny Smith’ 15 15 17 18 19 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 27 28 and ‘Fuji’) and advances in irrigation technology have permitted apple production to expand successfully into warmer climates (O’Rourke, 1994).
However, newer cultivars have gradually been introduced for varied production and marketing reasons. For example, ‘Red Delicious’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ became popular in the USA in the 1950s and 1960s, partly because they provided attractive display opportunities for the booming supermarket retail business. ‘Granny Smith’ entered the market initially as an off-season cultivar. Production expanded in the northern hemisphere in the 1970s and 1980s as the demand grew for a tarter apple. The arrival of ‘Jonagold’, ‘Gala’, ‘Fuji’ and ‘Braeburn’ in the 1980s and 1990s coincided with the growth of hypermarkets and a large expansion of the retail shelf space devoted to produce.
4. Section Choromeles, containing exclusively North American species. 5. K. , Malus doumeri (Bois) A. ) Rehder and Malus formosana Kawak. & Koidz. of Japan, Taiwan and South-East Asia. Robertson et al. (1991) revised the genera in Maloideae based primarily on a comprehensive numerical taxonomic treatment of 115 morphological traits, including foliage, inflorescence and fruit by Phipps et al. (1991). In the genus Malus, they retained three subgenera: (i) Malus; (ii) Sorbomalus; and (iii) Chloromeles.