By Frank Scherbaum
Electronic sign processing has turn into progressively more a vital part of observational seismology. whereas it deals unheard of energy in extracting details from seismic signs, it comes on the rate of getting to benefit quite a few new talents. facing electronic seismic facts calls for a minimum of a simple realizing of electronic sign processing. Taking the calculation of precise flooring movement because the guiding challenge, this direction covers the elemental conception of linear structures, the layout and research of easy electronic filters, the impact of sampling and A/D conversion and an creation to spectral research of electronic indications. It features a variety of examples and workouts that may be reproduced utilizing the PITSA software program package deal (Scherbaum and Johnson 1993) or related courses.
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Additional resources for Basic Concepts in Digital Signal Processing for Seismologists
Hint: The Nyquist frequency is also referred to as the folding frequency. Think of the frequency band as a foldable band which is folded at multiples of the Nyquist frequency. Mark the cxtresponding pairs of (input frequency, alias frequency) on this band. 5). If you have a lack of imagination, it may actually help to cut out a paper band and to actually perform the folding.
In order to meet the requirements of the sampling theorem, analog signals have to be filtered in a way to remove all the unwanted frequency components (Anti Alias FilmY). The reconstruction of a continuous signal from its sampled values (e. g. the Whittaker reconstruction) is also done by low pass filtering. The Whittaker reconstruction simply takes out all frequencies above the Nyquist frequency. 5 Hz and a discretization frequency of 10 Hz? Try to infer the rule for calculating the alias frequency for a given signal frequency and a given digitization frequency.
2 The determination of the damping constant 51 with h0 describing the mechanical damping of the pendulum, B,SB69~ I I I C A L | B1 • A$C I I I I | | I I ! I I l 1 I t I t i t l I I 1 (1) -e. ~ I I 1 Fig. 4 Seismometercalibration pulse (response of an ¢lectrodynamicseismometerto a step functionin acceleration) In addition to the elements shown in Fig. 3, electromagnetic seismometers often have an additional calibration coil to impose a predefiued displt~anent onto the seismometer mass. Switchln£ the calibration current on/off produces a step function in acceleration which corresponds to releasing the seismometer mass from a constant initial displacement.