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This booklet describes the invention of molecules from unexploited severe marine environments, and provides new techniques in marine genomics. It combines the present kingdom of information in marine genomics and complicated average items’ chemistry to pursue the sustainable creation of novel secondary metabolites (lead compounds), in addition to pharmacologically lively peptides/proteins, with antimicrobial, neuroprotective, anti-osteoporotic, anti-protozoan/anti-plasmodial, anti-ageing and immune-modulating results. extra, it employs molecular-biology-based methods and complicated chemical strategies to procure and to choose candidate compounds for pre-clinical and medical studies.
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Additional info for Blue Biotechnology: From Gene to Bioactive Product
034 µM) (Sjögren et al. 2006). Later, an even more potent barettin was extracted from G. barretti: bromobensizoxazolone barettin (Fig. 3) had an EC50 value of 15 nM (Hedner et al. 2008). To further understand the mode of action and molecular target of the barettins, we studied their afﬁnity to human serotonin receptors. The selection of receptors was based on the ﬁnding that the cyprid larvae contain serotonin receptors but also the structural similarities between the barettins and ligands with afﬁnity to serotonin receptors, such as the drug Tegaserod (Beglinger 2002).
Reasons for this renewed interest are explained by several factors, including technical developments in nucleotide sequencing, mass spectrometry and the combination into proteomics/peptidomics, but also by the general trend moving towards peptide and proteins in the area of drug development. For the natural product chemists, this change brings changes in methodology, for example moving from mainly working with extractions using organic solvents to aqueous solvents, and the use of big data and data mining for structure elucidation.
Aureus in Europe, 44% in the United States (CDDEP 2015), 16% in Canada, 47% in India (2014), and 90% in Latin America hospitals (2013 PAHO) (CDDEP, The state of world’s antibiotics 2015). In addition, an increased number of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, resistant to the current antibiotics, presents growing medical problem. Especially difﬁcult to treat are extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers which are resistant to third generation cephalosporins, whereas carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are resistant even to the last resort antibiotic carbapenem (Glasner et al.