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By Peter Sonnenfeld

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Published via the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Short classes in Geology Series.

This path is designed to give basic strategies and constraints of evaporitic mineral precipitation in numerous depositional environments, a dialogue of the focus of attendant accent accumulations of clastics, base metals and hydrocarbons, an built-in evaluation of epigenetic alteration of evaporite deposits, and a scientific research of old evaporite basin configurations.

These notes current case histories of present evaporite deposition within the wish that they're going to give you the keys to a greater figuring out of historic salt basins.

The info offered the following basically depend upon basins studied by way of the writer and his coworkers. even though this selection might sound a bit of restricted to a few readers accustomed to classical types, the examples proven the following conceal the most present-day geological settings. additionally, observations on pre-evaporitic deposits have been additionally brought.


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Extra resources for Brines and Evaporites

Sample text

In analogy, anoxic brines of evaporite basins also quickly become toxic to its bacteria and then arrest further putrefaction of organic matter. The organic matter is desiccated,acceptshydrogen from flocculating clay particles, and is stripped of COO-radicals. Proteins decomposefirst, leading to amino acid groups and eventually to nitrogen hydrides. Fatty acids are more resistant. The stripping of COO-radicals or decarboxylationis aided by the presenceof calcium or magnesiumhydroxides that then precipitate as calcite or magnesite respectively.

In continental brines, where the Ca/Na ratio is usually very large, thenardite, glauberite, bloedite and aphthitalite are much more common than in marine evaporites and they can 46 GENESIS OF EVAPORITES occur in bedded form. Both the Na-sulfates glauberite and thenardite dominate in that environment over the Ca-sulfates gypsum and anhydrite. Mirabilite is then their weathering product. s. As brine temperature is a deciding factor in the occurrence of the appropriate secondary precipitate, later temperature changes yield a host of further alterations to any of these precipitates.

The coexistenceof salts precipitated in open water with salts of capillary evaporation in concentric arrangement of mineral species, 4. often a peculiar geochemistry of both clays and precipitates, 5. gypsumbeing absent in the open lagoon,but present under intertidal sediments or as groundwater-derived crusts. , aragonite, dolomite). tlsare commonaround ancient marine evaporites. A general fining of terrigenous material towards the shores is usually noted. A scarcity of river drainageand widely scattereddischargepoints of gradually concentratinggroundwater produced an only discontinuous vegetation cover.

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