Download Carbon Nanomaterials as Adsorbents for Environmental and by Carlos P. Bergmann, Fernando Machado Machado PDF

By Carlos P. Bergmann, Fernando Machado Machado

This e-book offers a precis of the present use of carbon nanomaterials for water remedy, drug supply, structures and nanosensors. the 1st bankruptcy elucidates the adsorption approach phenomenon. additionally, the homes of other carbon nanomaterials for adsorption functions are lined. The 3rd bankruptcy offers the kinetic and equilibrium types of adsorption, processing of experimental facts and adsorption approach peculiarities. Environmental and organic functions of carbon nanomaterials are indexed within the final bankruptcy. This booklet is written from an application-oriented point of view and comes in handy for all these drawn to nanoadsorbents.

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Liu T, Li Y, Du Q et al (2012) Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by graphene. Lian P, Zhu X, Liang S, Li Z, Yang W, Wang H (2010) Large reversible capacity of high quality graphene sheets as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Li H, Zou L, Pan L, Sun Z (2010) Using graphene nano-flakes as electrodes to re-move ferric ions by capacitive deionization. Geng D, Yang S, Zhang Y et al (2011) Nitrogen doping effects on the structure of graphene. Zang J, Qian H, Wei Z et al (2014) Reduced graphene oxide supported MnO nanoparticles with excellent lithium storage performance.

Species and magnitude of interaction affects adsorption and they can be related to the polarity and charge distribution for example. Free electrons in CNTs make them possible to form strong chemical bonds with other radionuclides. Environmental conditions such as pH and ionic strength can also affect the electronic states and thus interactions between given molecule or ion and the carbon nanospecie. At high pH (pH > pKa) the negative surface charge provides electrostatic interaction favorable for adsorbing cations, while the decrease of pH leads to neutralization of surface charge [13].

25) where α is the initial adsorption rate (mg g−1 min−1) and β is related to the extent of surface coverage and the activation energy involved in chemisorption (g mg−1) and to = 1/αβ. 26. 26 is known as Elovich–chemisorption kinetic adsorption model. The determination of some kinetic parameters, possible changes of the adsorption rates as function of the initial concentration and the adsorption time as well as the determination of fractional kinetic orders, still lacks in the kinetic adsorption models [16].

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