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Hawting, JSS 27 (1982) 108-12, S. Günther, Al-Qantara 16 (1995) 485-89, and M. Rodinson, Der Islam 54, (1977) 321-25. 19 Abū Mūsā l-Ḥarīrī (= J. Azzi), Nabī l-raḥma, Beirut, 1990; Qass wa-nabī, Beirut, 1991; and J. Azzi, Le prêtre et le Prophète, trans. S. Garnier, Paris, 2001. 28 Christians and Christianity in the Qurʾān has endeavored to link Islam with the Ebionites. In brief, he sees Waraqa ibn Nawfal as the priestly leader of a Meccan Ebionite community, who chose Muḥammad as his successor.
209; Ahrens, Muhammed als Religionsstifter, pp. 130-32. g. J. Elliott, The apocryphal New Testament. A collection of apocryphal Christian literature in an English translation, Oxford, 1993; J. Elliott, The apocryphal Jesus. Legends of the early church, Oxford, 1996; A. ), The Armenian Gospel of the Infancy. With three early versions of the Protoevangelium of James, Oxford, 2008; F. Bovon and P. Geoltrain (eds), Écrits apocryphes chrétiens, Paris, 1997. 24 W. Rudolph, Die Abhängigkeit des Qorans von Judentum und Christentum, Stuttgart, 1922; H.
Monks are regarded positively in Q 5:82, but together with monasticism, they are criticized in other verses (Q 9:31-34). The same ambivalence is exhibited towards Christians in general. In Q 2: 62, they are promised a reward in the afterlife – 10 Q 5:17 has often been overinterpreted. Nothing implies that Muḥammad had detailed knowledge of Christian theology, and the sentence inna Allāha huwa l-Masīḥ seems best understood as a topicalization of Allāh, not as a refined theological statement. For the purposes of modern religious dialogue, there have been attempts to show that it is not necessary to interpret Q 4:157 as explicitly denying the crucifixion, though on philological grounds this is improbable.