By Louise Haagh (auth.)
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Extra resources for Citizenship, Labour Markets and Democratization: Chile and the Modern Sequence
In the case of Chile, key factors made the democratizing role of unions directly relevant to the development of human resources. 10 In other instances, employer organizations played a democratizing role. This, however, would typically depend on the existence of a history of associational behaviour, as in the exceptional case of the metallurgical association in Chile, ASIMET. In respect to the second question, we tend to find that attitudes to mobility are closely related to the perception of opportunities in labour markets.
T. H. Marshall is relevant, not only because he remains unsurpassed as a historical and definitional source on the subject, but also because he wrote his lectures at an important stage in the development of social rights, shortly after the Second World War. This is the phase that culminated in the aim of the welfare state, during the post-war boom, and whose decline and then reform are at the heart of our study. As Marshall saw the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries as the ‘three centuries of citizenship’ (civic, political and, finally, social), the period from the 1970s to the 1990s marked in some ways an equally seminal three decades.
Here we have chosen to emphasize the importance of ownership (or at least some control) over occupational mobility and skills. How far the retaining of the ability to choose and develop professionally over time (developmental liberty) contributes towards other aspects of individual freedom associated with work is something that is touched on tangentially in our discussion of local labour relations in Chile (in Chapters 8 and 9). Indeed, the concept of occupational citizenship also affords us the possibility of ascertaining the complex relationship between voice and exit.