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By Ethan Cochrane

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Phylogenetic-Groups-... Phylogenetic-Groups Polytomies PrimitivePlanterClad... Ranunculaceae APGII Homoplasies can often be avoided outright in morphological datasets by defining characters more precisely and increasing their number. When analyzing "supertrees" (datasets incorporating as many taxa of a suspected clade as possible), it may become unavoidable to introduce character definitions that are imprecise, as otherwise the characters might not apply at all to a large number of taxa; to continue with the "wings" example, the presence of wings would hardly be a useful character if attempting a phylogeny of all Metazoa, as most of these don't have wings at all.

Definitions Types of phylogenetic definitions. The horizontal bar indicates the evolution of the apomorphy mentioned in the apomorphy-based definition. "Branch-based" was formerly called "stem-based"; the term was changed to avoid confusion with the term "stem group" which means total clade minus crown clade. Under the rank-based codes of biological nomenclature, names themselves do not have definitions, but are instead usually linked to a type. Some biologists have claimed that this is unsatisfactory and that instability in nomenclature should only reflect instability of our knowledge of phylogeny, not instability in subjective opinions about which ranks should be given to which groups.

Cladograma Cladogramanotansimpl... Cladogramasimple Cladogramme spermato... Filogenia Pseudocelo... Step 2: consider possible cladograms Simple cladistics When there are just a few species being organized, it is possible to do this step manually, but most cases require a computer program. There are scores of computer programs available to support cladistics. Because the total number of possible cladograms grows exponentially with the number of species, it is impractical for a computer program to evaluate every individual cladogram.

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