Download Classical Philosophy: A Contemporary Introduction (Routledge by Christopher Shields PDF

By Christopher Shields

Classical Philosophy is a accomplished exam of early philosophy from the presocratics via to Aristotle. the purpose of the booklet is to supply an evidence and research of the information that flourished at the present and considers their relevance either to the ancient improvement of philosophy and to modern philosophy this present day. From those rules we will see the roots of arguments in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and political philosophy.

The ebook is prepared in 4 components through philosopher and covers:

The Presocratics Socrates Plato Aristotle Christopher Shields' variety is inviting, fresh and perfect for an individual coming to the topic for the 1st time. He presents a balanced account of the important themes and concepts that emerged from the interval and comprises beneficial additional examining and bankruptcy overviews.

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Additional info for Classical Philosophy: A Contemporary Introduction (Routledge Contemporary Introductions to Philosophy)

Sample text

Or, what is excellence? 9 Meno claims first that the virtue of a man consists in his ability to manage civic affairs and to benefit his friends while harming his enemies; the virtue of a woman consists in her managing her home well while being submissive to her husband; and the virtues of children, the elderly, and slaves are different again. ”10 Socrates’ response to this first attempt has both methodological and substantive consequences. He quips that although he had asked for one virtue, he has been beset by an entire swarm by Meno’s response.

On the contrary, this is precisely what he accepts when he contrasts what exists by convention with what exists in reality. If he finds himself in some ways cut off from a reality inaccessible to the senses, then this can only be due to the fact that there is a reality independent of his encountering it in sense perception, one which exists objectively and prior to his experiences of it. Things take a radical new direction with the advent of the Sophistic Movement, especially given the tendencies of its most famous and formidable practitioner, Protagoras (c.

We might speak of a doctor’s primary virtue as consisting in her diagnostic technique or of a certain lawyer’s virtue as residing more in his rhetorical abilities than in his fastidious research, but we also speak more narrowly of virtues of character associated with moral probity. So, the doctor is excellent in one way, the lawyer in another, and exceptionally moral persons in still another. If a man now claims to teach excellence as such, one might well want to know before offering him payment exactly Socrates 33 what that payment will purchase.

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