By Leonardo da Vinci
Описание: В 1966 году в Национальной библиотеке в Мадриде были обнаружены два манускрипта, написанные Леонардо. Когда-то они не были учтены при каталогизации, и об их существовании не было известно. Этим двум манускриптам дали условные названия «Мадридский кодекс I» и «Мадридский кодекс II».
«Мадридский кодекс I» состоит из 192 листов 1490—1499 годов написания, содержащих изображения различных механизмов и изложения теории механики. Хотя работа и посвящена механике, в ней есть заметки по астрономии и по оптике.
«Мадридский кодекс II» был создан Леонардо в 1503—1505 гг. и состоит из 158 листов. Он собрал исследования в области геометрии, такие, например, как «квадратуры круга». Кроме этого, в нём содержатся работы по перспективе и оптике. В книге можно найти эскизы морских и топографических карт, рассматриваются проблемы военной техники и архитектуры. Самое интересное в этом кодексе — неосуществлённый проект изменения русла реки Арно, эскизы фрески «Битва при Ангиари» и конного памятника Франческо Сфорца.
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Additional resources for Códices Madrid I
At first it didn’t seem like any big deal. We didn’t make much money on the hotel bars, never had. They kept us busy, but that was about it. The new customers, they offered us a lot of money for our time. So, it was logical to try to please them . . After a while, though, some less logical things started to happen. I mean, we used to produce an entire product line for a major corporation . . we’d been making the product for them forever, it seems. One day they simply cancelled their orders. Said we had gotten too expensive .
The product diversity that was explicitly built into the plant’s operating metrics was not being captured in the ABC estimates. Through persistence, the V. P. was able to win his point, resulting in the use of “intensity factors” to create a weighted average cost of an activity. A bar that was hard to make, with a high level of content, a dark color, unusual shape, and/or extremely high quality acceptance threshold, would be charged five to ten times the amount of activity cost a simple white bar for use by hotels would bear.
Two years after the initial implementation, the researcher returned to the site for a series of follow-up visits. From the onset, it was clear that there were problems at the firm. Where once there had been a need to run its machines beyond their rated speeds, sometimes up to 168 hours a week, machines now sat idle. Where orders had sat backlogged, with staged materials blocking aisles and filling corners, was empty space. What had happened? It was in answering this question that the unintended consequences of an accounting abstraction that did not directly deal with the physical capacity of the plant became clear.