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By 卞孝萱

刘禹锡(772~842),唐代文学家、哲学家。字梦得。洛阳(今属河南)人,祖籍中山(今河北定县)。他是匈奴族后裔,七世祖刘亮随魏孝文帝迁洛阳,始改汉姓。父刘绪因避安史之乱,举族东迁,寓居嘉兴(今属浙江)。刘禹锡出生在嘉兴,19岁左右游学长安。贞元九年与柳宗元同榜登进士第,接着又登宏词科。贞元十一年登吏部取士科,授太子校书,开始踏上仕途。贞元十六年入杜佑幕掌书记,参与讨伐徐州乱军。十八年调任渭南县主簿。次年任监察御史。贞元二十一年(当年八月改元永贞)一月,德宗死,顺宗即位,任用王叔文等人推行一系列改革弊政的措施。

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Fei does not describe concrete social patterns as he did in his earlier ethnographies. Instead, he builds his sociology on the development of models or ideal types, and he sharpens these models through contrasts with models drawn from other societies. "First," says Fei, we should start with our own society, and then we may study others for purposes of comparison. I am an outsider to [the United States], but I can see how different it is from mine through such comparisons. "38 II CHAXUGE/U The main theory that Fei develops analytically to describe Chinese society depicts the principles of Chinese social organization.

313-29. : Stanford University Press, 1988), a compilation of women speaking about their own lives in the People's Republic of China in the 1980s. " In Chinese society, gender definitions cannot be separated from social roles; gender definitions are inherent aspects of relational categories and are primal forces fundamental in shaping the world-the yin and the yang. 58 In Chinese society, it is difficult to conceive of "man" and "woman" as meaningful social categories apart from specific relationships.

To the Chinese themselves, it is a transformative view; Fei's theories have become the points of reference for how to think about Chinese society. For Westerners who read this book and who think through Fei's ideas for the first time, Fei's view is equally transformative. knowledge-particular rules about particular people in particular places. Fei's sociology demands that we in the West rethink ourselves. 79. In fairness, it should be noted that Mao used class analysis as a way to change Chinese society, to mobilize the peasantry, rather than as a way to understand it.

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