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Extra resources for Collection of Liu Zongyuan (Chinese classical literature series) (中国古典文学基本丛书:柳宗元集)
Subsequent leaders of the Communist Party—Nikita Khrushchev (1953–1964) and Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982)—tempered the most oppressive aspects of Stalinism, but preserved the basics of the partystate system. Mikhail Gorbachev (1985–1991), the first Soviet leader to undertake serious reform, set in motion a series of events that brought about the collapse of the USSR, leaving 15 newly independent states in its place. The present Russian government is a mixed presidential-parliamentary system patterned after the French government, but with extraordinary powers delegated to the president.
In exchange, the princes would provide tribute to the Mongols. Initially, this was one-tenth of everything in the principality—livestock, food, and population. In this way, the Mongols obtained troops and horses for their army, along with slaves, furs, silver, and other goods. Later, as Mongol control weakened, the khans delegated primary responsibility for tax collection to the Prince of Moscow, thus elevating him to the status of Grand Prince and contributing to Moscow’s emergence as the premier Russian city.
In this way, the Mongols obtained troops and horses for their army, along with slaves, furs, silver, and other goods. Later, as Mongol control weakened, the khans delegated primary responsibility for tax collection to the Prince of Moscow, thus elevating him to the status of Grand Prince and contributing to Moscow’s emergence as the premier Russian city. In Novgorod, Prince Aleksandr Nevskii cooperated with the Mongols, apparently reasoning that since resistance was futile, it would be better to strike a favorable arrangement with Batu Khan in the south.