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By 柳宗元

  柳宗元,字子厚,是我国唐代杰出的文学家和著名的思想家。他祖籍河东,人称柳河东,曾贬官柳州,因又称柳柳州。他出身于官僚地主家庭,二十一岁中进士,二十六岁第博学宏词科,授集贤殿书院正字,后又任蓝田尉,监察御史裹行。贞元二十一年,与刘禹锡等一起参加主张政治革新的王叔文集团,升任礼部员外郎。不久,革新失败,被贬为永州司马。十年后,改内贬为柳州刺史。又四年,病逝于柳州,年四十七岁。
  柳宗元一生,经历了代宗、德宗、顺宗、宪宗四朝,但他的主要活动是在贞元、元和时期。这时经过历时八年的安史之乱,唐王朝已开始走下坡路,为旧时史家称道的所谓盛唐时代已经一去不返。这场大乱以后,地主阶级和农民阶级的矛盾、地主阶级内部各个阶层和各个集团之间的矛盾,不仅没有缓和,而且都造一步激化了。藩镇军阀依然拥兵割据,并且从河北四镇扩展到内地。

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Extra resources for Collection of Liu Zongyuan (Chinese classical literature series) (中国古典文学基本丛书:柳宗元集)

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Subsequent leaders of the Communist Party—Nikita Khrushchev (1953–1964) and Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982)—tempered the most oppressive aspects of Stalinism, but preserved the basics of the partystate system. Mikhail Gorbachev (1985–1991), the first Soviet leader to undertake serious reform, set in motion a series of events that brought about the collapse of the USSR, leaving 15 newly independent states in its place. The present Russian government is a mixed presidential-parliamentary system patterned after the French government, but with extraordinary powers delegated to the president.

In exchange, the princes would provide tribute to the Mongols. Initially, this was one-tenth of everything in the principality—livestock, food, and population. In this way, the Mongols obtained troops and horses for their army, along with slaves, furs, silver, and other goods. Later, as Mongol control weakened, the khans delegated primary responsibility for tax collection to the Prince of Moscow, thus elevating him to the status of Grand Prince and contributing to Moscow’s emergence as the premier Russian city.

In this way, the Mongols obtained troops and horses for their army, along with slaves, furs, silver, and other goods. Later, as Mongol control weakened, the khans delegated primary responsibility for tax collection to the Prince of Moscow, thus elevating him to the status of Grand Prince and contributing to Moscow’s emergence as the premier Russian city. In Novgorod, Prince Aleksandr Nevskii cooperated with the Mongols, apparently reasoning that since resistance was futile, it would be better to strike a favorable arrangement with Batu Khan in the south.

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