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By 陶渊明


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But because of the absence of long-term instruments, most household savings are in short-and medium-term deposits, which do not provide a solid basis for long-term lending. Thus, foreign financial resources are often mobilized for infrastructure investments (often at high guaranteed rates of return), while domestic savings are inefficiently utilized. 27 percent. A fully funded system with an additional contribution rate to meet the needs of transition cohorts will require a 34 percent contribution rate from 2004 to 2031.

This volume is a contribution to that discussion, which is now at a stage where decisive action is possibleand strongly recommended. The challenges China has two challenges of old age security: a longterm problem rooted in the rapid aging of its population, and the immediate and urgent problem of pensions for employees of state enterprises. The Long-run problem The one-child policy of the late 1970s and the 1980s and increasing life expectancy mean that China's population is aging rapidly. 1). It took most OECD countries 80 to 100 years to double the proportion of their old people to 18 percent; China will do that in just 34 years.

Liquidation, joint ventures, and mergers cannot proceed smoothly unless the issue of the social obligations of state enterprises is settled. In addition, as the losses of enterprises have accumulated, banks now face an increasing burden of bad debts, which impedes their own commercialization. Thus the dilemma of policymakers is increasingly evident: state enterprises cannot be efficient unless they face a hard budget constraint; banks cannot be commercialized unless they can enforce hard budget constraints on their borrowers; and neither of these is possible unless enterprises are freed of their social welfare obligations, of which pensions are an important component.

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