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By 陶渊明

  陶渊明(三六五——四二七),一名潜,字符亮,浔阳柴桑《今江西九江》人,曾作过州祭酒、镇军参军、建威参军和彭泽令,四十一岁由彭泽令上辞官归隐,直至去世。卒后友人私谧“靖节”,世称靖节先生。
  陶渊明少怀济世之志,但他生活的年代正是东晋与刘宋政权交替之际,政治昏暗、政局动荡、社会关争复杂、民族矛盾激化,他的理想舆现实发生了极大的冲突,他逐渐视仕途如棘途,向往平淡自然的生活。同时,魏晋以来玄学勃兴、玄言诗盛行,玄学的熏染又使他追求心灵的自适、人的完整。仕舆隐的矛盾困扰了陶渊明十九年,最终他选择了在盛年辞官归隐,再未出仕,表现出固穷守节、正直不阿、淳朴率真的高洁品格。隐居期间,他写有一些反映战乱给人民带来的痛苦与灾难的诗,但更多更好伪是歌咏归隐生活、描绘农村景色的诗篇,也有一些用意境化手法表现老庄思想、玄毕命题的诗,正因如此,陶渊明被称为“古今隐逸诗人之宗”(锺嵘《诗品》)。陶渊明的作品继承了汉、魏、正始之传统,并形成了独特的风格,内容充实,情感真挚,风格冲淡,韵致悠然,极善用写意的手法点染出浑朴深远的意境。

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But because of the absence of long-term instruments, most household savings are in short-and medium-term deposits, which do not provide a solid basis for long-term lending. Thus, foreign financial resources are often mobilized for infrastructure investments (often at high guaranteed rates of return), while domestic savings are inefficiently utilized. 27 percent. A fully funded system with an additional contribution rate to meet the needs of transition cohorts will require a 34 percent contribution rate from 2004 to 2031.

This volume is a contribution to that discussion, which is now at a stage where decisive action is possibleand strongly recommended. The challenges China has two challenges of old age security: a longterm problem rooted in the rapid aging of its population, and the immediate and urgent problem of pensions for employees of state enterprises. The Long-run problem The one-child policy of the late 1970s and the 1980s and increasing life expectancy mean that China's population is aging rapidly. 1). It took most OECD countries 80 to 100 years to double the proportion of their old people to 18 percent; China will do that in just 34 years.

Liquidation, joint ventures, and mergers cannot proceed smoothly unless the issue of the social obligations of state enterprises is settled. In addition, as the losses of enterprises have accumulated, banks now face an increasing burden of bad debts, which impedes their own commercialization. Thus the dilemma of policymakers is increasingly evident: state enterprises cannot be efficient unless they face a hard budget constraint; banks cannot be commercialized unless they can enforce hard budget constraints on their borrowers; and neither of these is possible unless enterprises are freed of their social welfare obligations, of which pensions are an important component.

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