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For the Thoma used the zeros and poles of parametrization of a character x E &(em), the power series where UJ, = ( 1 , 2 , . . , n) E 6, is a permutation with a single nontrivial cycle of length n. Vershik and the author [13] found a more adequate interpretation of the Thoma parameters which is related to the approximation of extreme characters of the group 6, by the characters of irreducible representations of the finite symmetric slibgroups 6 , . Recall that the irreducible representations of the group 6, and their characters have a standard parametrization by partitions of the number n.

1. The Plancherel measure and the partial fraction expansion. 2. Recall that we denote by X I , x2,. . , xd the points of minima, and by yl, . . , yd-1, the points of maxima of a diagram v = w(u). Condition (3) is immaterial for what follows, so we drop it. A function v = w(u) that satisfies only the two conditions (1) wl(u) = &I, and (2) there exists c E R such that w(u) = lu - cl for sufficiently large / u ( , will be called a rectangular diagram. The point c = C x k - C yk is called the centre of the diagram, and the number the area of the diagram.

Substitute two variables x = ( x l , 2 2 ) into Px(x; q, t ) , then set 21x2 = 1, and consider PAas a polynomial in one variable y = xl r 2 . + 53. T H E PLANCHEREL MEASURE O F 6, 31 This observation allows us to relate the characterization of the true Macdonald polynomials among the generalized ones to an old problem of Fejkr's [go]. This problem is stated as follows: among all polynomials of the form where bo, bl, . . is a scalar sequence, find orthogonal polynomials with respect to a certain measure.

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