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In some cases developing nations are able to develop indigenous sources of supply, but in many cases they must import minerals and metals they lack or cannot produce efficiently. This growth in demand in the Third World may eventually provide a large market for minerals and metals but not for many years to come. First, even strong growth from a low base can take a long time to reach a significant level in global terms. S. copper use (World Bureau of Metal Statistics, 1989). Second, developing countries frequently lack the foreign exchange needed to purchase the metals and minerals they need.

7 SOURCES: Metal consumption data are from Metallgesellschaft (annual) and International Iron and Steel Institute; GDP data are from the World Bank. About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted.

The next phase, often termed beneficiation , involves the production of a form of the ore in which the mineral is more concentrated. This may be accomplished by physical means, in which the ore is reduced to smaller particles by mechanical crushing and grinding, followed by physical separation of the mineral values from the ore to produce a "concentrate"—material containing a relatively high percentage of the metal of interest. In other cases, the mineral values are leached out of the ore by chemical means, a process known as hydrometallurgy.

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