Download Complementation: A Cross-Linguistic Typoloy (A Sipri by R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald PDF

By R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald

A supplement clause is used rather than a noun word; for instance you may say both I heard [the consequence] or I heard [that England beat France]. Languages missing supplement clauses hire complementation concepts to accomplish related semantic effects. precise experiences of specific languages, together with Akkadian, Israeli, Jarawara, and Pennsylvania German, are framed by way of R.M. W. Dixon's creation, which units out the diversity of concerns, and his end, which pulls jointly the facts and the arguments.

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22 R. M. W. Dixon (e) Can the complement clause be marked for tense and/or aspect and/or modality, as a main clause can be? If a language has several varieties of complement clauses, they may vary with respect to this property. In English, for instance, a THAT complement clause has the full possibilities for including modals and tense, as in a main clause. But ING and FOR TO complement clauses may not include modals or tense, although they can feature the auxiliary have -en (which may in this context mark past tense) and the imperfective auxiliary be -ing.

Israeli (Chapter 3) has functions O, S, E, CS, and CC, but not A. Complement clauses are restricted to O function in White Hmong, Tariana, Goemai, Kambera (Chapters 5, 8, 9, 11). In Akkadian (Chapter 7), both types of complement clause occur in O function, and in S for a passive clause; just the inWnitive (potential/activity) type can also be in CS function, and oblique function (after a preposition). Four varieties of complement clause are distinguished for Dolakha Newar (Chapter 6)—two varieties occur just in O function, one in O or S, and the fourth just in S function (or, for one verb, Stimulus role).

Just occasionally, clause chaining can function as a complementation strategy, as in Motuna, a Papuan language from the Solomon Islands (Onishi 2004). There can be other clause-chaining strategies, for example, sequential subordinate clauses in Tariana (Chapter 8) and sequential and consequence clauses in Goemai (Chapter 9). For Matses (Chapter 10), Fleck describes a further kind of complementation strategy which he terms Adverbialization; this is used with Primary-B verbs of Attention, Thinking, Speaking, and Liking, and with Secondary-A verbs of Beginning and Trying.

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