By Helena Pereira
This entire e-book describes cork as a usual product, as an commercial raw-materials, and as a wine bottle closure. From its formation within the outer bark of the cork oak tree to the houses which are of relevance to its use, cork is gifted and defined together with its actual and mechanical properties.The business processing of cork from post-harvest systems to the construction of cork agglomerates and composites is described.Intended as a reference e-book, this is often the proper compilation of clinical wisdom on state of the art cork construction and use Key Features:*Presents entire assurance from cork formation to post-harvest procedures*Explains the actual homes, mechanical houses and caliber of cork*Addresses themes of curiosity for these in nutrients technology, agriculture and forestry
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This entire ebook describes cork as a traditional product, as an commercial raw-materials, and as a wine bottle closure. From its formation within the outer bark of the cork oak tree to the homes which are of relevance to its use, cork is gifted and defined together with its actual and mechanical homes.
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Extra info for Cork: Biology, Production and Uses
The solid material of cells is however not uniform. It shows an ultrastructure at the below micrometer level derived from its composite nature in terms of chemical components and their spatial arrangement and resulting from its biological development process. Similarly to the growth of wood cells, it is thought that the newly formed cells after division of the phellogen are surrounded by a cellular membrane, the primary wall containing cellulose and pectins. During cell enlargement, the cell wall material is biosynthesised and deposited onto the cell primary wall, making up the secondary wall that will be lined by a thin tertiary wall to the interior.
Cell shape and topology The description of cork structure requires its location in space and in relation to its original position in the tree. The nomenclature used in plant anatomy, namely by wood anatomists, to refer to the different directions and sections will be used here. 4. The axial direction (the z-axis) is the direction of apical growth and in a tree it is represented by the line of pith development; in the usual cases of straight standing stems it corresponds to the vertical direction.
4 Source: Pereira et al. (1996). The pores are elongated with a length-to-width ratio on average of 2 and oriented nearly in the axial direction. The appearance and the characteristics of pores in the transverse and radial sections are similar. 2 mm2. Their length is the result of how the lenticular channels are sectioned by the observation plane: they will cross the full width of the cork plank in case the section completely contains the channel axis, but are usually much shorter. , 2000). The lenticular channels are also of cellular nature, filled up by an agglomerate of cells with many intercellular spaces and lacking a regularly ordered structural arrangement.