Authors with varied backgrounds in technology, heritage, anthropology, and extra, give some thought to tradition within the context of the cosmos.
• How does our wisdom of cosmic evolution impact terrestrial tradition?
• Conversely, how does our wisdom of cultural evolution impact our pondering attainable cultures within the cosmos?
• Are existence, brain, and tradition of primary importance to the grand tale of the cosmos that has generated its personal self-understanding via technological know-how, rational reasoning, and arithmetic?
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Additional resources for Cosmos and Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context
Research on media effects on sexuality has been preoccupied with concerns about the encouragement of sexually irresponsible behaviors. Some scholars have offered criticism that border on absurdity—such that entertainment content does not always portray explicitly responsible sex. , Kunkel, Farrar, Eyal, Biely, Donnerstein, & Rideout, 2007). Yet, it is unrealistic to expect entertainment producers to behave as though they are in the business of making public service announcements. What this perspective also fails to recognize is that, even though condoms do not usually get unrolled on Western European television either, the rates of teenage pregnancies and STDs there are already significantly lower than they are in the United States.
The viewer is surprised and perhaps shocked, but also invited to take this non-relational statement at face value and to suspend judgment. Jackson (2007) contends that, for women, “new sexual scripts are on offer, replacing the older goals of romance and marriage with aspirations towards sexual autonomy and experimentation” (p. 11). Yet, the old relational scripts have by no means disappeared, making the terrain of most Western sexuality fraught with uncertainty and disappointments. constructivist theoretical underpinnings 31 Masturbatory Fantasies The gendering of sexual scripts is also evident in the ways men and women construct their own private pleasure narratives, reflecting sexual scripts at the so-called intrapsychic level.
American women’s and men’s motives for engaging in sexual intercourse are different, research suggests. , 1998; Lenton & Bryan, 2005). As Schwartz (2007) puts it, “love is supposed to be the motor of women’s sexual emotions” (p. 88). That this is a sociocultural construction becomes obvious when we consider that just a few centuries ago, in 17th-century New England, it was women who were viewed as “naturally passionate and incapable of sex regulation” (Foster, 1999, p. 742). It is unclear to what degree these relational scripts hold up in the current hook-up culture.