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By C. Stewart Gillmor, John R. Spreiter

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Published through the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the History of Geophysics Series

The beginnings of magnetospheric physics have been the beginnings of house physics, of the incredible discoveries made up of in situ measurements from rockets and satellites and from more and more refined ground-based measurements and computer-assisted theoretical and empirical study. The beginnings of magnetospheric physics also are in detail hooked up with the foreign Geophysical yr 1957-58, the best world-wide cooperative clinical occasion in background. From the interval following global struggle II till the past due Sixties, the us, and global physics and engineering typically, entered a brand new point of large-scale examine epitomized via "space physics."

Covering the interval approximately 1958-1967, this quantity includes own money owed from these pioneers whose pathfinding learn initiated and solidified the sphere of magnetospheric physics. listed below are bills of the 1st rocket and satellite tv for pc stories, of the invention of the magnetosphere and Van Allen belts, of early versions of the physics of the distance round our Earth and of the Earth's atmosphere in the Sun's plasma. reports of the magnetosphere of the Earth led on to our wisdom of the plasma setting round different planets and all through our sun process. The authors of papers during this quantity have been in initially, pioneers who performed an important function within the early years of magnetospheric physics.

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Method to determine sense and magnitude of electric field from lunar particle shadows, / . Geophys. Res, 75, 2591, 1970. Anderson, K. , and D. W. Milton, Balloon studies of X-rays in the auroral zone, 3. high time resolution studies, / . Geophys. , 69,4457, 1964. Anderson, K. , and R. P. Lin, Observations on the propagation of solar-flare electrons in interplanetary space, Phys. Rev. , 16, 1121, 1966. Anderson, K. , andR. P. Lin, Observation of interplanetary field lines in the magnetotail, / .

Lin, J. E. McCoy, and R. E. McGuire, Solar wind and interplanetary electron measure­ 35 ments in the Apollo 15 subsatellite, / . Geophys. , 77, 4611, 1972. Anderson, K. , R. P. Lin, and R. E. McGuire, Linear Magnetiza­ tion feature associated with Rima Sirsalis, Earth and Planet. Sci. , 34, 141, 1977. Coroniti, F. , R. L. McPherron, and G. K. Parks, Geophys. , 73, 1715-1722, 1968. , Gas dynamics of cosmic clouds, Symposium held at Cambridge, England, July 6-11, 1953, North Holland Publish­ ing Company, Amsterdam, 1955.

M. " This was a highly significant discovery and the authors' belief that "Such electrons contribute a new tool for the study of the interplanetary magnetic field. " has been 30 THE EARTH'S MAGNETOSPHERE: GLIMPSES AND REVELATIONS fully justified. In Berkeley, Robert Lin and I [1966] found these same events and nine more in the IMP-1 data. W e also found that the electrons reaching the Earth were quite directional (non-isotropic) and not behaving at all as pre­ dicted by an isotropic diffusion model [Anderson and Lin, 1 9 6 6 ] .

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