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Extra resources for Drug Residues in Foods: Pharmacology, Food Safety and Analysis (Food Science and Technology)
Apramycin is authorized for use neither in laying hens nor in cattle or sheep producing milk for human consumption. When apramycin was administered intravenously and intramuscularly to lactating cows with clinically normal and acutely inflamed udders, and to lactating ewes with normal or subclinically infected udders, drug penetration into the milk from the acutely inflamed quarters of cows was extensive. Maximum concentrations in mastitic milk were more than 10-fold greater than those in normal milk (9).
Diseases of the liver sometimes also interfere with the normal biotransformation capacity. In addition, increase in biotransformation may occur at high body temperatures because of an increase in the metabolic rate. 4 Excretion Excretion is the process by which the parent drug and its metabolites are removed from the body fluids before elimination occurs. The most important site of drug excretion is the kidney. Extrarenal sites of excretion include the liver, lung, mammary gland, sweat gland, salivary glands, and intestinal mucosa.
This increase in the rate of metabolism can be attributed primarily to a morphological proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum, with concurrent increases in the quantity and turnover of the drug-metabolizing enzymes. The phenomenon of induction of drug metabolism has been demonstrated for several species including rabbits, trout, cattle, sheep, and swine (8), and for several drugs including chlorpromazine, estradiol, griseofulvin, phenobarbital, phenylbutazone, amprolium, and zoalene (9, 10).