Download Du bon usage de la piraterie : Culture libre, sciences by Florent Latrive PDF

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Extra resources for Du bon usage de la piraterie : Culture libre, sciences ouvertes

Sample text

Bill Gates, Une lettre ouverte aux hobbyistes, Computer Notes, février 1976. org/biblio (traduction de Michel Volle). Et sur l’histoire de la micro-informatique, lire Steven Levy, Hackers: Heroes of the computer revolution, Doubleday, New York, 1984. Les logiciels libres et les «biens communs créatifs» 82 DU BON USAGE DE LA PIRATERIE SAVOIRS ET CULTURES LIBRES 83 que l’on partage. ». Bill Gates et sa microscopique société MicroSoft (avec un «S» majuscule) n’aura pas trop souffert de ces «vols».

Selon Foray et Hilaire, il faut surtout que les membres de la communauté aient tous l’impression de bénéficier de la mise en commun des ressources. Ce qui était le cas des élites lyonnaises, dont le sentiment communautaire était renforcé par la concurrence avec Londres. Tous les participants doivent collectivement partager la conviction que «l’ouverture augmente la performance générale du système et que la diffusion des connaissances de l’un participe d’un jeu à somme positive». Si un nombre croissant d’acteurs du système a le sentiment d’être floué par la collectivité, le dispositif s’affaisse, miné de l’intérieur par la multiplication des stratégies individuelles de privatisation des savoirs.

En face, Londres sera victime d’un système concurrentiel où chaque inventeur garde son innovation pour lui-même, sans bénéfices collectifs. Le verdict est sans appel: si, au début du XIXe, Londres et Lyon comptaient un nombre similaire de métiers à tisser (14 500 contre 12 000), en 1853 la différence entre les deux agglomérations est considérable avec 60 000 métiers à tisser en service dans les soieries lyonnaises contre 5 000 à Londres. L’organisation de l’innovation à Lyon n’a alors rien d’anarchique.

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