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By Robert M. Grant

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14:8), greedy for food. Next there are four birds which rob others: eagle, hawk, kite, and crow (Lev. 11:13–16). Barnabas mentions three kinds of fish without scales (Lev. 11:10; Deut. 8 The most immoral animals of all, he claims, are the hare (Lev. 11:5),9 the hyena, and the weasel (Lev. 11:29). 10 First, Moses does not mention the hyena or any of the fish in question. 13 These notions were sometimes found in collections of animal lore, but the authoritative Aristotle had explicitly rejected two of them.

115 Waszink lists many patristic parallels, especially from Jerome Augustine,116 statements implying that these animals have moral goals and therefore reason. ”118 30 UNUSUAL ANIMALS On the other hand, ancient Hebrews found flies annoying, alive or dead. (“Dead flies make the perfumer’s sweet ointment turn rancid and ferment,” Eccl. ) The dog-fly was one of the plagues against Egypt (Exod. ), means “lord of flies” in Hebrew, while in the synoptic gospels Beezeboul is prince of demons. William Golding thus followed tradition when he identified the two deities in his novel Lord of the Flies.

1:31) in view of the insects presumably present in it. Where did they come from? ” He analyzes further, classifying animals as useful or harmful or superfluous. The useful ones are obvious, while those that seem harmful are really beneficial because they punish us, vex us, or scare us so that we may look for a life better than this one. 129 The discussion and debate was inconclusive. 33 3 UNREAL ANIMALS 1 Palaephatus. 2 Centaurs. 3 Dragons. 4 The phoenix. 5 Other unreal beasts. 6 A sea monster on land.

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