Download El azar y la necesidad (Ensayo sobre la filosofía natural de by Jacques Monod PDF

By Jacques Monod

Ensayo sobre l. a. filosofía traditional de l. a. biología moderna publicado originalmente en 1970 por Jacques Monod, Premio Nobel de Medicina en 1965. Este biólogo francés formuló el teorema de que, si en cualquier proceso se suprime los angeles notion de finalidad, las cosas suceden por una combinación de azar y necesidad.

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Among the earliest treatments of the subjective nature of security is Arnold Wolfers’s seminal article on national security (Wolfers, 1952). Wolfers contends that security consists of both objective and subjective elements, and he admits that security threats can never be measured objectively, it is always a matter of subjective evaluation and speculation (Wolfers, 1952: 485). The varying perceptions of insecurity between nations and groups within nations facing similar external circumstances arise as a result of unique cultural and historical experiences (Wolfers, 1952: 486; Katzenstein, 1996, Roe, 1999).

At its core, the refugee regime is constitutive of the normal relationship between states and their citizens, and refugee flows represent a violation of this relationship, and an exceptional condition (Nyers, 2006a; Soguk, 1999), not unlike house fire as abnormal. Yet, refugee flows have been and are a recurring and normal feature of international politics. Following the Second World War, the international refugee regime was established to normalize these situations, to create a standard and predictable response.

The framework of securitization Thus far, I have tried to provide a framework for studying the process of securitization that incorporates several dimensions that had previously been unexplored. As the previous discussion illustrates, the theory of securitization remains at a high level of abstraction, making empirical analysis of the process difficult. Furthermore, the sequence of the process is unclear regarding whether the speech acts of securitizing actors initiate the process of securitization or represent the culmination of the process.

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