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By E. I. Parkhomenko

In many components of geophysics, geology, geochemistry, and mining, there's significant curiosity in laboratory facts at the actual houses of assorted sorts of rocks. till lately, how­ ever, merely the mechanical houses of rocks have been studied intimately. the previous couple of years have noticeable a comparatively great amount of research of houses of rock samples and a necessity to arrange the result of those experiences has arisen. In"Electrical houses of Rocks,"* E. 1. Parkhomenko reviewed and cataloged reviews of electric resistivity and the dielectric consistent in rocks. within the current paintings she covers different electric phenomena that are saw to ensue in rocks and minerals and studies the re­ sults of her personal researches, in addition to that of others, formerly released. Theoretical and experimental info at the piezoelectric prop­ erties of minerals and rocks acquired for the reason that 1953 by means of E. 1. Parkho­ menko and myself because the results of laboratory investigations on quartz-bearing rocks (granite, gneiss, quartz veins, and so on. ) include the majority of the monograph (Chapters1-4). Itwas no longer formerly con­ sidered polycrystalline mass akin to a rock may perhaps express piezoelectric houses - it used to be intended attribute purely of unmarried crystals.

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Electrification Phenomena in Rocks

In lots of parts of geophysics, geology, geochemistry, and mining, there's enormous curiosity in laboratory information at the actual homes of varied varieties of rocks. until eventually lately, how­ ever, basically the mechanical homes of rocks were studied intimately. the previous few years have noticeable a comparatively great amount of analysis of houses of rock samples and a necessity to arrange the result of those reports has arisen.

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Example text

D = e;E - er ] D' = e;E - dt t = eE +YEr r =_dE+_i_ ' 1 ' YEt where E is the electric field intensity, D is the electric displacement, t is the mechanical stress, r is the strain, e r and e t are the values for dielectric permeability in the absence of strain and in the strained state, respectively, YD and YE are the values for Young's modulus when the dielectric displacement and the electric field are zero, respectively, e == e /41r , and D * == D /41r [7, 8], t 'The piezoelectric coefficients hmi and qmi are related to the values d mi , e mi , C ji , S ji, enm, and f:Jn m as follows: I E dml = enmqnl = emfsfl' qml = ~~mdnl = hmfsft, eml = 8~mhnl = dm/clt, n-« = ~;;"'enl = qm/cft, m, n = 1, 2, 3.

1. The sample must be well insulated from the metal parts of the loading equipment. 2. The surfaces of the sample must be free of grease and thoroughly cleaned of any foreign material, and the sample should be completely dried. 3. If small piezoelectric effects are to be detected (that is, d < 10- 10 cgse units), the sample should be shielded from electrical interference. 4. 01 mm) are essential conditions for obtaining repeatable results. In our studies of the piezoelectric effect using the static meth- od [9], we have used a universal hydraulic testing machine with a capacity of 30 tons to apply stress to the samples.

2. 759 56 6= 1. 0 c.. 97 To u r mal i n e is chemically a complicated silicate of boron, aluminum and one or more other elements. The composition of tourmaline varies over broad limits. The chemical formula is vague, but it has the following general form (Na, Ca)s(Al, Fe, Mg, Mn, Tib7(Si, Bb70SS(OH)4. Tourmaline may also contain Cr and Fe+:! in small quantities. Crystals are prismatic and belong to the hexagonal system with 3·m symmetry. Because of this, a pyroelectric effect is observed along the tertiary axis, rather than a piezoelectric effect.

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