By The Committee on Metallurgy
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The most recent equipment for fighting and Controlling Corrosion in every kind of fabrics and purposes you can now flip to Corrosion Engineering for professional assurance of the idea and present practices you must comprehend water, atmospheric, and high-temperature corrosion techniques. This accomplished source explains step by step easy methods to hinder and keep watch over corrosion in all kinds of metal fabrics and applications-from metal and aluminum constructions to pipelines.
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The most serious are the high capital investment required and the high consumption of costly electrical power. There are also the costs of the alumina plant and of the carbon anode plant. Many of the aluminum-producing countries must import alumina or bauxite. The supply of petroleum coke is limited. These deﬁciencies have motivated researchers to ﬁnd alternate processes. 1 45 Nonconsumable Anodes Instead of reacting the oxygen generated at the anode with the anode material (carbon) to form CO and CO2, it was conceived to use an inert anode to eliminate carbon as a raw material and recover oxygen as a by-product.
3Al2 OF6 þ 6F À Al2 O3 þ AlF3À 6 ! 3AlOF2 54 Gasik and Gasik Cells are generally operated with 276% A12O3 in the electrolyte. Measurements indicate that Naþ ions carry most of the current and, most probably, a charge transfer occurs at the cathode interface. Here, hexaﬂuoroaluminate ions are discharged, forming aluminum and FÀ ions to neutralize the charge of the current carrying Naþ ions: þ À À 12Naþ þ 4AlF3À 6 þ 12e ! 12ðNa þ F Þ þ 4Al þ 12F Oxyﬂuoride ions discharge on the anode, forming carbon dioxide and A1F63À ions: 3À À 6AlOFÀ 2 þ 3C þ 24F !
Gas bubbles produce signiﬁcant stirring in the electrolyte and are the dominant force in bath movement (Fig. 26). Extractive Metallurgy of Aluminum 33 Figure 26 Gas generation at the anode surface. Natural convection due to temperature gradients or composition diﬀerences in the electrolyte are insigniﬁcant compared with the movement induced by magnetic forces and gas bubbles. Today, cells over 250,000 A have been designed and operated with high eﬃciency by controlling magnetic turbulence to produce a more quiescent metal pad, thus permitting a reduction in the anode7cathode distance.