Download Environmental Culture: The Ecological Crisis of Reason by Val Plumwood PDF

By Val Plumwood

Introduction
Environmental tradition and the predicament of reason
Culture as opposed to techno-optimism: cause to the rescue?
Adding ecology: ecohumanities perspectives

1 The ecological drawback of reason
The penguin’s story
Modern heirs of rationalism
Dualism and monetary rationalism
Blindspots of rationalism: the fisheries case
A gendered time table: neither rational, ecological or ethical

2 Rationalism and the paradox of science
The double face of science
Disengagement as sado-dispassionate practice
The subject/object divide and the anomaly of science
Resolving the anomaly of technological know-how: integrating the ‘two cultures’
Anthropocentrism and anthropomorphism

3 The politics of ecological rationality
The rationality of the EcoRepublic
The politics of rationality
Remoteness and decision
Remoteness, autarchy and spatial scale

4 Inequality and ecological rationality
Liberal democracy and ecological rationality
Beyond liberal democracy: deliberative modifications
Beyond deliberative democracy
The ecological rationality of procedural and participatory democracy

5 The blindspots of centrism and human self-enclosure
Rationalism and human-centredness
The logical constitution of centrism
A parallel liberation version of anthropocentrism
Economic centrism: nature as type and resource
The centric parallel as a pragmatic model
Otherising as an obstacle to justice
The prudential blindspots of anthropocentrism

6 Philosophy, prudence and anthropocentrism
Is hard anthropocentrism beside the point and unhelpful?
Is human-centredness inevitable? The drawback of prudential argument
Is human-centredness inevitable? The argument from standpoint
Selfishness and cosmic irrelevance
Recognition, prudence and survival

7 The ethics of commodification
Commodification and person/property dualism
Minimalist methodologies of closure
Animal rights and vegetarian duties
Rationalism, manufacturing facility farming and use/respect dualism

8 in the direction of a dialogical interspecies ethics
Decentring human-centred ethics
Ranking, dualism and heterogeneity
Ranking and interspecies egalitarianism
Framework stances and the parable of mindlessness
Intentionality and ethical value
The intentional reputation stance and non-humans
Opening up interspecies ethics
Communicative interspecies ethics

9 cohesion, team spirit and deep ecology
The foundation of team spirit: identification or difference?
Solidarity and oppressive suggestions of unity
Unity and the political conception of deep ecology
The ecological enlightenment of the guy of property
Is there an eco-socialist deep ecology?

10 in the direction of a materialist spirituality of place
Is spirituality extra fundamental?
‘Materialism’ and spirit/matter dualism
Human-centred spiritualities
Indigenous critiques
Trickster spirituality: the realm as agent
Place-based spirituality as oppositional practice

11 end

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Environmental Culture: The Ecological Crisis of Reason

Introduction
Environmental tradition and the problem of reason
Culture as opposed to techno-optimism: cause to the rescue?
Adding ecology: ecohumanities perspectives

1 The ecological difficulty of reason
The penguin’s story
Modern heirs of rationalism
Dualism and fiscal rationalism
Blindspots of rationalism: the fisheries case
A gendered time table: neither rational, ecological or ethical

2 Rationalism and the paradox of science
The double face of science
Disengagement as sado-dispassionate practice
The subject/object divide and the anomaly of science
Resolving the paradox of technological know-how: integrating the ‘two cultures’
Anthropocentrism and anthropomorphism

3 The politics of ecological rationality
The rationality of the EcoRepublic
The politics of rationality
Remoteness and decision
Remoteness, autarchy and spatial scale

4 Inequality and ecological rationality
Liberal democracy and ecological rationality
Beyond liberal democracy: deliberative modifications
Beyond deliberative democracy
The ecological rationality of procedural and participatory democracy

5 The blindspots of centrism and human self-enclosure
Rationalism and human-centredness
The logical constitution of centrism
A parallel liberation version of anthropocentrism
Economic centrism: nature as type and resource
The centric parallel as a realistic model
Otherising as an obstacle to justice
The prudential blindspots of anthropocentrism

6 Philosophy, prudence and anthropocentrism
Is tough anthropocentrism beside the point and unhelpful?
Is human-centredness inevitable? The trouble of prudential argument
Is human-centredness inevitable? The argument from standpoint
Selfishness and cosmic irrelevance
Recognition, prudence and survival

7 The ethics of commodification
Commodification and person/property dualism
Minimalist methodologies of closure
Animal rights and vegetarian duties
Rationalism, manufacturing unit farming and use/respect dualism

8 in the direction of a dialogical interspecies ethics
Decentring human-centred ethics
Ranking, dualism and heterogeneity
Ranking and interspecies egalitarianism
Framework stances and the parable of mindlessness
Intentionality and ethical value
The intentional reputation stance and non-humans
Opening up interspecies ethics
Communicative interspecies ethics

9 solidarity, cohesion and deep ecology
The foundation of unity: identification or difference?
Solidarity and oppressive options of unity
Unity and the political concept of deep ecology
The ecological enlightenment of the fellow of property
Is there an eco-socialist deep ecology?

10 in the direction of a materialist spirituality of place
Is spirituality extra fundamental?
‘Materialism’ and spirit/matter dualism
Human-centred spiritualities
Indigenous critiques
Trickster spirituality: the realm as agent
Place-based spirituality as oppositional practice

11 end

Additional resources for Environmental Culture: The Ecological Crisis of Reason

Sample text

It is not only totally available for its owners’ remaking as they see fit into a more rational and marketable form, but better so remade, ‘improved’. In the free market, nature is to be rationally ordered through a system in which it is a The ecological crisis of reason 27 commodity or potential commodity, a set of replaceable, interchangeable units answering to human demand and lacking limits which might inhibit that demand. Rationalist economics then maps the world and everything it can reach within it in the reductive terms of trade flows, economic resources and profit potential.

3 Marine science here was an adjunct to maximising production goals and helped to legitimate excessive exploitation by claiming to establish safe levels that were not and could not in fact be established. 4 More basic research was neglected in favour of crudely instrumental and productivist goals – increasingly the kind of science corporations and economic rationalist bureaucrats are willing and able to fund. ‘In doing that’ acknowledges marine researcher Richard Beamish ‘we … sacrificed the opportunity to understand the mechanisms in the ecosystem better’.

Four out of five scientists now work for corporations which bring precisely such an orientation to bear: thus we can link overfishing to fisheries science and fishing technology, land salinisation and degradation to irrigation and agricultural technology, the disasters of intensive agriculture and genetic engineering to biological, agricultural and forestry science, exotic species introductions of agricultural science aimed at ‘controlling pests’ or maximising production to chains of indigenous extinctions, and transportation, combustion and refrigeration technology to global warming and the ozone hole.

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