By Thomas J. Ahrens
Published through the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the AGU Reference Shelf sequence, quantity 1.
the aim of this guide is to supply, in hugely available shape, chosen severe information for pro and scholar good Earth and planetary geophysicists. insurance of subject matters and authors have been rigorously selected to satisfy those objectives.
those volumes characterize the 3rd model of the “Handbook of actual Constants. ” a number of generations of strong Earth scientists have chanced on those handbooks to be the main often used merchandise of their own library. the 1st model of this guide used to be edited by way of F. Birch, J. F. Schairer, and H. Cecil Spicer and released in 1942 through the Geological Society of the US (GSA) as designated Paper 36. the second one version, edited through Sydney P. Clark, Jr., used to be additionally released by means of GSA as Memoir ninety two in 1966. seeing that 1966, our clinical wisdom of the Earth and planets has grown tremendously, spurred through the invention and verification of plate tectonics and the systematic exploration of the sun system.
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Additional info for Global Earth Physics: A Handbook of Physical Constants
3 Fig. 11. 02 d 20 Rrn compared with measured values (dashed lines). ) < < linear superposition of 40 components each having a specific size distribution and refractive index. 20. THE VOLUME SCATTERING FUNCTION 0bservations A body of experimental data on the volume scattering function p is given in Table VIII, supplemented by Figs. 13 and 14. These results comprise observations in different oceanic waters, and are obtained by means of the various types of instruments described. We distinguish between the laboratory (in vitro) method and the in situ method with a view to laying more emphasis on the latter values.
28 It is a matter of some significance that diffraction is independent of the composition of the particle, whereas refraction and reflection are determined by the refractive index of the particle. Particle size is the major parameter in scattering. The influence of shape from the point of view of geometric optics has been discussed in a conclusive way by Hodkinson (1963). In the case of irregular, nonabsorbing, randomly oriented particles, the diffraction pattern should be similar t o that produced by spherical particles with the same projected area.
These scattering objects which looked red also by visual observation were encountered between 500 and 1,500m in the central Pacific as a peculiar phenomenon at two stations only. For the rest it was found that p(45) for particles is nearly the same at 465 nm and at 625nm. 45 (cf. Table XI). 3. Observations with different instruments in the Baltic also indicate that scatterance (p(45) and b ) is dominant in the green (G. Kullenberg, 1969; H$jerslev, 1974a). Finally it may be added that for high angles wavelength dependence of scattering appears in most cases.