By Luis M. Botana
The previous couple of years have caused many alterations within the box of marine and freshwater pollutants, with advances in analytical know-how and the conclusion that those pollution are an international factor. providing an entire reference advisor, Seafood and Freshwater pollutants: Pharmacology, body structure, and Detection, 3rd Edition addresses all facets of the social and clinical impact of phytotoxins, from laws and tracking to new drug improvement. overlaying many new themes, the publication examines 3 major features: tracking of poisons; chemical, mechanistic, and toxicological range; and detection technologies.
New to this edition:
- 35 new chapters and five up to date chapters
- A specialise in state of the art methodology
- Coverage of recent applied sciences to domesticate algae and to spot, isolate, and quantify toxins
- Regulatory changes
- Climate switch evidence
- Expanded details on toxicology
Part I of the publication contains an outline and reports common concerns concerning toxin detection, ecology, and variety, and results of weather switch. half II covers affects of poisons relating to epidemiology, toxicology, economics, and surveillance. half III explores on hand detection applied sciences, equivalent to practical assays, biosensors, mass spectrometry, nanotechnology, and extra. moreover, regular reference fabrics for pollutants are mentioned. components IV to VI offer distinct descriptions of toxin chemical range, organic assets, and modes of motion. half VII addresses using pollutants as beginning issues for healing medications for melanoma, neurological issues, and for novel antibiotics.
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Additional info for Seafood and freshwater toxins: pharmacology, physiology, and detection
None of the known shellﬁsh toxins was found to be involved in the outbreak, but rather the toxic agent was identiﬁed as domoic acid (95,96). The source of domoic acid was found to be the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (formerly known as Nitzschia pungens f. multiseries) (97,98). Domoic acid is a water-soluble tricarboxylic amino acid of molecular weight 311, which acts an analogue of the neurotransmitter glutamate and is a potent glutamate receptor agonist. Domoic acid was previously identiﬁed in the red alga Chondria armata (99), but it had not previously been linked to human illness, and is related both structurally and functionally to the excitatory neurotoxin kainic acid isolated from the red macroalga Digenea simplex (100).
Immunohistochemical staining of tissues from affected animals revealed brevetoxin immunoreactivity in lymphocytes and macrophages associated with inﬂammatory lesions of the respiratory tract and lymphoid tissues (32). Molecular modeling studies have implicated brevetoxin as an inhibitor of a class of lysosomal proteases, the cysteine cathepsins, which are important in antigen presentation (33). The demonstration of brevetoxin immunoreactivity in lymphoid tissue of the manatees raises the possibility of immunosuppression as a second mode by which brevetoxin exposure may affect human health, particularly in individuals with chronic exposure to aerosolized toxin during prolonged red tide incidents.
A Tubaro, C Florio, E Luxich, S Sosa, R Loggia, T Yasumoto. A protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay for a fast and sensitive assessment of okadaic acid contamination in mussels. Toxicon 34:743– 752, 1996. 73. MR Vieytes, OI Fontal, F Leira, JMV Baptista de Sousa, LM Botana. A ﬂuorescent microplate assay for diarrheic shellﬁsh toxins. Anal Biochem 248:258–264, 1997. 74. T Usagawa, M Nishimura, Y Itoh, T Uda, T Yasumoto. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies against okadaic acid prepared from the sponge Halichondria okadai.