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L:. 4. + 8 1 --- (b) Fig. 20 Coring in chill-cast cuprotlickel (ko < 1): ( a ) as-cast strlrcture; and (b) electron-beam microanalyser trace across the boitndary between two dendrite arms. The aualitatioe nature of the segregation is apparent as a maximunz and a minimum in the copper and nickel respectiuely. / Fig. 1lcubic S 1 1 . 1 , t At this stage it would seem appropriate to point out that all the early studies of the interface of metals and alloys and the corresponding microstructural observations were handicapped by a basic experimental difficulty.

J. Metals, 21(4), 31. 13. Cooksey, D. J. , Wilkinson, M. P. and Hellawell, A. (1964). Phil. , 10, 745. 14. Hunt, J. D. (1968). J. Crystal Growth, 3-4, 82. 15. Hellawell, A. (1967). Met. and Materials, 1, 361. 16. Davies, G. J. (1971). Stret7gtllenit7g Methods itz Crystals (Ed. by A. Kelly and R. B. Nicholson), Applied Science, Barking, p. 485. 17. Mollard, F. R. and Flemings, M. C. (1967). Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 239, 1526. 18. Mollard, F. R. and Flemings, M. C. (1967). Tratzs. Met. Soc. AIME, 239, 1534.

The maximum undercooling can be determined from eqn. 8) and i s , This maximum undercooling occurs at a point given by X = D - R log, [ I I I C ~ (-I ko)Rl GD~O J The above treatment assumes that solute mixing in the l~quidis the result of diffusion only. It can be modified to allow for partial or complete mixing in the liquid (see Chalmers' '). In these circun~stances long-range segregation will still occur. 5 - r # . - STRUCTURAL EFFECTS RESULTING FROM SOLUTE REDISTRIBUTION IN ALLOYS In the absence of constitutional supercooling, the behaviour during growth is essentially the same as that of pure materials with the exception that long-range segregational effects occur which are associated with the initial and final transients in the solidification process (Fig.

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